• Rough and Smooth Lava

    The surface of lava can appear smooth, rough, jagged, and sometimes like a pile of construction rubble. What are the stories behind these surface features and how did they form?

Ask An Earth and Space Scientist

Ask An Earth and Space Scientist is an educational resource for students, teachers, parents, and life-long learners. We encourage anyone interested in earth and space to make use of its content.

Astronaut illustration

Space exploration is an adventure unlike anything else. Discover the history and future of humans in space to learn how you could be a part of it.

Oxygen in the atmosphere

Today, the air we breathe has lots of oxygen – over 20 percent! But that wasn’t always the case.

How do we study volcanoes on other planets?

Volcanoes are found on other planets and moons across the solar system.  The lava they erupt provides information on how other planets and moons formed.

Types of galaxies

There are millions of galaxies in our Universe. How do we organize them so that we can compare them to each other and learn new things?